Air Healthy to Breathe
Under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to set and review National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six common outdoor air pollutants (also known as “criteria” air pollutants): nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ground-level ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and lead (Pb).
Four of these pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, and Pb) emit directly from a variety of sources. Ozone is not directly emitted, but is formed when oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight. PM can be emitted, or it can be formed when emissions of NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx), ammonia, organic compounds, and other gases react in the atmosphere.
It is important for states to regulate these pollutants to minimize harmful health effects to Americans. Learn more.
Economic Indicators versus Emissions of Common Pollutants
Since xxxx, South Dakota's economy demonstrated continuous growth, its population increased, and its citizens drove more miles.
Concurrently, the combined emissions of common outdoor air pollutants xxxxed by xx%.
Communities directly affect pollutant emissions as populations increase and citizens engage in activities like driving cars. Common outdoor air pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This measure encompasses both point and nonpoint source emissions.
Point Source Emissions
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)
Particles 10 micrometers or less (PM10)
Particles 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5)
Ambient Air Pollution
X out of x standards measured in South Dakota are currently at or below the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).*
This data reflects measurements of the SD School NCore Site, 46-099-0008.
Ambient (or atmospheric) air quality refers to the concentration of pollutants in the outdoor air. Ambient air is regulated by U.S. EPA and maintained by states through the NAAQS, which is the set of guidelines on acceptable concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ground-level ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and lead (Pb). NAAQS seek to protect the public, especially “sensitive” populations such as asthmatics, children, and the elderly, from harmful ambient air pollutants.
For the purposes of ECOS Results, individual states had discretion with regard to the geographical scope of areas reported.
Percent Above or Below NAAQS Standard
|National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)||NAAQS Value||xxxx Value||% Above or Below NAAQS|
|Carbon Monoxide (CO)8-hours daily maximum concentrations, not to be exceeded more than once per year (ppm)||9||xx||xx.x%|
|Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2 AMEAN)Annual Mean (ppb)||53||xx||xx.x%|
|Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2 P98V)98th percentile of 1-hour daily maximum concentrations, averaged over 3 years (ppb)||100||xx||xx.x%|
|Ozone (O3)Annual 4th highest daily maximum 8-hours concentrations, averaged over 3 years (ppm)||0.070||xx||xx.x%|
|Pollution of Particulate Matter 10 μm or less (PM10)24-hours daily maximum concentrations not to be exceeded more than once per year, averaged over 3 years (μg/m3)||150||xx||xx.x%|
|Pollution of Particulate Matter 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 WTDAM) Annual mean, averaged over 3 years (μg/m3)||12.0||xx||xx.x%|
|Pollution of Particulate Matter 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 P98V) 98th percentile of 24-hours daily maximum concentrations, averaged over 3 years (μg/m3)||35||xx||xx.x%|
|Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 P99V) 99th percentile of 1-hr daily maximum concentrations, averaged over 3 years (ppb)||75||xx||xx.x%|
|Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 AMEAN) 3-hour maximum concentrations not to be exceeded more than once per year (ppm)||30||xx||xx.x%|
Less and Properly Managed Waste
To adequately protect public health and the environment from hazardous waste contamination, U.S. EPA and states implement the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the national framework of solid waste control. States employ various metrics to illustrate how waste is managed and whether facilities are complying with regulations.
Brownfield Cleanups Since xxxx
As a result of South Dakota's efforts, xxxx acres of contaminated land† have been made available for reuse!
A brownfield is a property whose expansion, redevelopment, or reuse may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant. Cleaning up and reinvesting in these properties increases local tax bases, facilitates job growth, utilizes existing infrastructure, removes development pressures from undeveloped land, and protects the environment.
For the purposes of ECOS Results, individual states had discretion with regard to whether they show both their state and U.S. EPA-led cleanups. States and EPA may have different definitions of “Acres Ready for Reuse.”
† acreage only includes EPA led cleanups
Acres ready for reuse†
Brownfield Cleanups in South Dakota
Facilities Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) protects communities and promotes resource conservation through safe management and cleanup of solid and hazardous waste, and encouragement of source reduction and beneficial use. Learn more about RCRA.
% of RCRA Inspections in Which No Significant Non-Compliance is Found (RCRA Subtitle C)
RCRA Subtitle C provides “cradle-to-grave” regulation of hazardous waste by establishing management requirements for generators and transporters of hazardous waste and for owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Under Subtitle C, U.S. EPA may authorize states to implement key provisions of the requirements, including permitting, enforcement, and corrective action or cleanup.
% of RCRA Facilities in Corrective Action with Human Exposure Under Control
Under RCRA Subtitle C, U.S. EPA has the authority to require corrective action of facilities that treat, store, or dispose of hazardous wastes to determine if there is any unacceptable human exposure to contamination that can be reasonably expected under the current land- and groundwater-use conditions. Most states are authorized to run the corrective action program.
% of Underground Storage Tank Facilities in Significant Operational Compliance Over Time (RCRA Subtitle I)
An underground storage tank (UST) is a tank connected to piping that has at least ten percent of its combined volume underground. USTs may contaminate groundwater, the source of drinking water for nearly half of all Americans. U.S. EPA and states collaborate with industry to protect the public health and the environment from potential releases.
States and EPA are in the process of implementing new UST standards, which may have an effect on compliance rates.
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) Cleanups Completed that Meet Cleanup Standards
Since xxxx, South Dakota has completed xxxx LUST clean up projects.
When a leaking underground storage tank (LUST) releases a fuel product, contamination of the surrounding soil, groundwater, surface water, or indoor air can occur. Early detection of the leak, accurate determination of the source and type of fuel released, and appropriate cleanup response is critical for protecting public health and the environment.
Water Clean and Available for All Uses
U.S. EPA and states have made significant progress in improving water quality since enactment of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) decades ago. Challenges remain, however, in areas like maintaining infrastructure and limiting nutrient pollution. States have different means of assessing water quality, but all report on water quality by measuring the concentration of pollutants and sedimentation from point (direct) and nonpoint (indirect) sources. Water infrastructure funding and compliance with state and federal regulations are primary factors in improving the health of waterbodies. Learn more.
Water Bodies Measured
xx% of South Dakota's xx,xxx miles of perennial rivers and streams have been assessed for Water Quality as of xxxx.
Of that xx%, xx% are in good condition all assigned beneficial uses.
The U.S. has one of the world’s most reliable and safe supplies of drinking water, with millions of Americans daily accessing high-quality public water systems. Drinking water facilities must comply with federal and state regulations to meet the stringent drinking water standards. Note that other Americans rely on non-community sources of water like private wells, which are not included in this measure.
Percent of South Dakota's population being served by compliant community water systems
Percent of South Dakota's community water systems meeting all applicable health-based standards
Point Source Water Pollution
Percent of Major Wastewater Dischargers without Significant Noncompliance
Wastewater discharges from industrial and commercial sources may contain pollutants at levels that could adversely affect the quality of receiving waters or interfere with publicly owned treatment works that receive those discharges.
Reduction in Nonpoint Source Pollutants
xxxx lbs removed over time
xxxx lbs removed over time
xxxx tons removed over time
Investments in Water Infrastructure
$ invested cumulatively
invested since xxxx
projects since xxxx
$ invested cumulatively
invested since xxxx
projects since xxxx